"Ground combat in the Pacific theater, with few exceptions, tended to be a slow, bloody battle of attrition. The terrain barred most use of armor, leaving the fighting to be done by the infantry and whatever artillery could be manhandled through the terrain. Victory rarely came in a sudden spurt of glory; defenders had to be rooted out of the difficult terrain, and usually at a high cost to the attacker. The Allies tried to rely on whatever firepower they could muster; the Japanese relied on the martial fervor of their troops, even if the most ardent fervor flickered under starvation and disease".
- WitP AE manual
Leader Combat Modifiers
The plus and minus signs (+/-) listed in the combat report under combat modifiers refers to whether or not a leader, in this case, passed or failed various checks to add their 'uniqueness' to the combat results. Therefore a combat report entry that shows "leader (-)' would mean that a leader failed to influence combat most likely due to bad dice rolls.